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This quasi-experimental research aims to study the effects of the self-help group program on care behaviors for anemia prevention of caregivers and hematocrit of early childhood in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. The samples were the primary caregivers who took care of early childhood children in the child development center aged 3-5 years. They were classified into experimental and control groups, 30 pairs per group. The duration of the activities was 8 weeks. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square statistics, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test, and paired t-test. The results showed that the experimental group had mean childcare behavior scores and mean hematocrit in early childhood were higher than before receiving the program (p < 0.001). In the control group, the mean childcare behavior scores of primary caregivers and mean hematocrit in early childhood before and after receiving the program were not different. When compared between groups, the mean childcare behavior scores of the experimental group were higher than the control group (p < .001), the mean hematocrit of early childhood in the experimental group and the control group were not statistically significant. In addition, the self-help group program support to adjust primary caregiver's early childhood care behavior can help prevent anemia.
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