Main Article Content
The objective of the analytical cross-sectional study was to examine the factors related to the oral hygiene of young children in 6 southern provinces of Thailand. The participants included 745 young children aged 6 months to 2 years and their caregivers who attended the hospitals for vaccination and health examination for their children. Dental plaque was assessed based on Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index. Demographic data, knowledge, and practices in oral health care for children and perceptions of oral health care based on the Protection-motivation theory of caregivers were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression statistics were used in data analysis. The study revealed that there were 67 % of young children had high dental plaque levels. From multiple logistic regression analysis, the frequency of tooth brushing for children and the knowledge scores in oral health care were influential factors for oral hygiene. Young children who were brushed their teeth at least twice a day (Adjusted OR = 1.56; 95%CI = 1.06-2.31) and a greater average score on oral health knowledge (Adjusted OR = 1.12; 95%CI = 1.00-1.26) had good oral hygiene. These findings emphasize the importance of toothbrushing at least twice a day for young children and the effects of caregivers’ knowledge on the oral hygiene of young children.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Bureau of Dental Health, Ministry of Public Health. National Oral Health Status 8th Thailand Survey report 2017. Bangkok: Samchareanpanich Co. Ltd; 2018. (in Thai)
Jordan AR, Becker N, Jöhren HP, Zimmer S. Early Childhood Caries and Caries Experience in Permanent Dentition: A 15-year Cohort Study. Swiss Dent J 2016; 126(2): 114-119.
Meyer F, Enax J. Early Childhood Caries: Epidemiology, Aetiology, and Prevention. Int J Dent 2018.
Sheiham A. Dental caries affects body weight, growth and quality of life in pre-school children. Br Dent J 2006; 201(10): 625-626.
Duangthip D, Chen KJ, Gao SS, Lo EC, Chu CH. Managing Early Childhood Caries with Atraumatic Restorative Treatment and Topical Silver and Fluoride Agents. International Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017; 14(10): 1204.
Martignon S, Usuga-Vacca M, Cortés F, Cortes A, Gamboa LF, Jacome LS, Ruiz,Carrizosa JA, González-Carrera MC, Restrepo-Perez F, Ramos N. Risk factors for early childhood caries experience expressed by ICDAS criteria in Anapoima, Colombia: a cross-sectional study. Acta Odontol Latinoam 2018; 31(1): 58-66.
Opal S, Garg S, Jain J, Walia I. Genetic factorsOpal S, Garg S, Jain J, Walia I. Genetic 2015; 60(1): 2-11.
Hao W, Xu H, Chen X, Zhou Q, Zhang P, Chen F, Qin M. Changes in dental plaque microbial richness and oral behavioral habits during caries development in young Chinese children. Caries res 2015; 49(2): 116-123.
Chanpum P, Duangthip D, Trairatvorakul C, Songsiripradubboon S. Early Childhood Caries and Its Associated Factors among 9- to 18-Month Old Exclusively Breastfed Children in Thailand: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 17(9): 3194.
Nakornchai S, Taweeboon S. Factors associated with caries in baby teeth. Th Dent PH J 2006; 11(1-2): 15-24. (in Thai)
Sun HB, Zhang W, Zhou XB. Risk Factors associated with Early Childhood Caries. Chin J Dent Res 2017; 20(2): 97-104.
Azevedo MS, Romano AR, Costa VP, da Linhares GS, Lamas RR, Cenci MS. Oral Hygiene Behavior in 12- to 18-month-old Brazilian Children. J Dent Child (Chic) 2015); 82(3): 128-134.
Kimhasawad W, Punyanirun K, Somkotra T, Detsomboonrat P, Trairatvorakul C, Songsiripradubboon S. Comparing protection-motivation theory-based intervention with routine public dental health care. Int J Dent Hyg 2021; 19(3): 279-286.
Andrew L, Wallace R, Wickens N, Patel J. Early childhood caries, primary caregiver oral health knowledge and behaviours and associated sociological factors in Australia: a systematic scoping review. BMC Oral Health 2021; 21(1): 521.
Rogers RW. A Protection Motivation Theory of Fear Appeals and Attitude Change1. J Psychol 1975; 91(1): 93-114.
Cochran WG. Modern methods in the sampling of human populations. Am J Public Health Nations Health 1951; 41(6): 647-668.
Rueang-ngam P. Factors Related to Dental caries of Preschool Children at Day care Centers in Khanuworaluksaburi district, Kamphaeng Phet province. Th Dent PH J 2013; 18(2): 9-22. (in Thai)
Rustogi KN, Curtis JP, Volpe AR, Kemp JH, McCool JJ, Korn LR. Refinement of the Modified Navy Plaque Index to increase plaque scoring efficiency in gumline and interproximal tooth areas. J Clin Dent 1992; 3(Suppl C): C9-12.
Yoocharoen P, Chuanark P, Ut-ang P, Rattanayot J. Impact of vaccine wastage rate on national vaccine management and immunization schedule: A case study of DTP, DTP-HB and DTP-HB-Hib vaccine. Dis Control J 2021; Vol 47(2): 230-245. (in Thai)
Hajietae I, Langputeh P. A Model of Vaccine Coverage Promotion in Children Aged 0-5 Years in Yala. Al-Hikmah Journal 2020; 10(20): 137-148. (in Thai)
Sukanwaranil S, Phomma S. Dental caries status and the risk factors of children 1-24 months old. Th Dent PH J 2014; 19(1): 66-75. (in Thai)
Boustedt K, Dahlgren J, Twetman S, Roswall J. Tooth brushing habits and prevalence of early childhood caries: a prospective cohort study. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2020; 21(1): 155-159.
Walsh T, Worthington HV, Glenny AM, Marinho VC, Jeroncic A. Fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations for preventing dental caries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019; 3(3).
de Jong-Lenters M, L'Hoir M, Polak E, Duijster D. Promoting parenting strategies to improve tooth brushing in children: design of a non-randomised cluster-controlled trial. BMC Oral Health 2019; 19(1): 210.
Ministry of Public Health. Clean and healthy teeth guide. Samut Prakan: Something Above Co. Ltd; 2017. (in Thai)
Nishide R, Mizutani M, Tanimura S, Kudo N, Nishii T, Hatashita H. Homecare protective and risk factors for early childhood caries in Japan. Environ Health Prev Med 2018; 23(1): 57.
Huebner CE, Milgrom P. Evaluation of a parent-designed programme to support tooth brushing of infants and young children. Int J Dent Hyg 2015; 13(1): 65-73.
Alshammary F, Aljohani FA, Alkhuwayr FS, Siddiqui AA. Measurement of Parents' Knowledge toward Oral Health of their Children: An Observational Study from Hail, Saudi Arabia. J Contemp Dent Pract 2019; 20(7): 801-805.
Naidu RS, Nunn JH. Oral Health Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviour of Parents and Caregivers of Preschool Children: Implications for Oral Health Promotion. Oral Health Prev Dent 2020; 18(1): 245-252.
American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. Fluoride toothpaste use for young children. J Am Dent Assoc 2014; 145: 190–191.
lczak-Kowalczyk D, Gozdowski D, Kaczmarek U. Factors Associated with Early Childhood Caries in Polish Three-Year-Old Children. Oral Health Prev Dent 2020; 18(1): 833-842.