Investigation of Risk Factors for Lumpy Skin Disease and Prevention Practices in Dak Lak, Vietnam, 2021–2022


  • Ngan Le Dak Lak Sub-Department of Livestock Production and Animal Health, Vietnam
  • Pawin Padungtod Emergency Center for Transboundary Animal Diseases, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Country Office for Vietnam, Vietnam
  • Long Thanh Pham Department of Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam



lumpy skin disease, case-control studies, vaccination, Vietnam


Lumpy skin disease is a transboundary animal disease primarily affecting cattle, and causing fever, anorexia, skin nodules, mastitis, swelling of peripheral lymph nodes, nasal discharge, watery eyes, and sometimes mortality. The disease was first detected in Vietnam in October 2020 and has spread to 55 out of 63 provinces with around 210,000 cattle and buffaloes infected. Dak Lak was one of the provinces seriously affected by the disease. A retrospective case-control study in three districts of the province was conducted to assess awareness of the disease among local livestock holders and to determine potential risk factors for disease transmission. A total of 276 holdings known to keep cattle or buffalo, including 138 cases (holdings that had at least one animal with clinical signs of the disease) and 138 controls (holdings with no clinically apparent infected animal), were investigated. The study revealed gaps in knowledge and practices among livestock holders on disease control with median scores of 8/20 for knowledge and 5/9 for practices. Vaccination against lumpy skin disease was the only risk factor significantly associated with disease transmission (adjusted odds ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval 0.21–0.72). We recommend raising the awareness of livestock owners about the risk factors of lumpy skin disease and the importance of vaccination for better prevention and control of outbreaks.


Namazi F, Khodakaram Tafti A. Lumpy skin disease, an emerging transboundary viral disease: a review. Vet Med Sci. 2021 May;7(3):888–96. doi:10.1002/vms3.434.

Molla W, Frankena K, Gari G, Kidane M, Shegu D, de Jong MCM. Seroprevalence and risk factors of lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia. Prev Vet Med. 2018 Nov 15;160:99–104. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2018.09.029.

Porco A, Chea S, Sours S, Nou V, Groenenberg M, Agger C, et al. Case report: Lumpy skin disease in an endangered wild banteng (Bos javanicus) and initiation of a vaccination campaign in domestic livestock in Cambodia. Front Vet Sci. 2023 Aug 3;10:1228505. doi:10.3389/fvets.2023.1228505.

Abutarbush SM, Ababneh MM, Al Zoubi IG, Al Sheyab OM, Al Zoubi MG, Alekish MO, et al. Lumpy skin disease in Jordan: disease emergence, clinical signs, complications and preliminary-associated economic losses. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2015 Oct;62(5):549–54. doi:10.1111/tbed.12177.

Akther M, Akter SH, Sarker S, Aleri JW, Annandale H, Abraham S, et al. Global Burden of Lumpy Skin Disease, Outbreaks, and Future Challenges. Viruses. 2023 Aug 31;15(9):1861. doi:10.3390/v15091861.

Chihota CM, Rennie LF, Kitching RP, Mellor PS. Mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Epidemiol Infect. 2001 Apr;126(2):317–21. doi:10.1017/s0950268801005179.

Lubinga JC, Tuppurainen ES, Stoltsz WH, Ebersohn K, Coetzer JA, Venter EH. Detection of lumpy skin disease virus in saliva of ticks fed on lumpy skin disease virus-infected cattle. Exp Appl Acarol. 2013 Sep;61(1):129–38. doi:10.1007/s10493-013-9679-5.

Sprygin A, Pestova Y, Wallace DB, Tuppurainen E, Kononov AV. Transmission of lumpy skin disease virus: A short review. Virus Res. 2019 Aug;269:197637. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2019.05.015.

Carn VM, Kitching RP. An investigation of possible routes of transmission of lumpy skin disease virus (Neethling). Epidemiol Infect. 1995 Feb;114(1):219–26. doi:10.1017/s0950268800052067.

Tuppurainen E, Dietze K, Wolff J, Bergmann H, Beltran-Alcrudo D, Fahrion A, et al. Review: vaccines and vaccination against lumpy skin disease. Vaccines (Basel). 2021 Oct 6;9(10):1136. doi:10.3390/vaccines9101136.

Tuppurainen ES, Oura CA. Review: lumpy skin disease: an emerging threat to Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2012 Feb;59(1):40–8. doi:10.1111/j.18651682.2011.01242.x.

Yeruham I, Nir O, Braverman Y, Davidson M, Grinstein H, Haymovitch M, et al. Spread of lumpy skin disease in Israeli dairy herds. Vet Rec. 1995 Jul 22;137(4):91–3. doi:10.1136/vr.137.4.91.

Mulatu E, Feyisa A. Review: lumpy skin disease. J Vet Sci Technol. 2018;9(3):1000535. doi:10.4172/2157-7579.1000535.

Parvin R, Chowdhury EH, Islam MT, Begum JA, Nooruzzaman M, Globig A, et al. Clinical epidemiology, pathology, and molecular investigation of lumpy skin disease outbreaks in Bangladesh during 2020-2021 indicate the re-emergence of an old african strain. Viruses. 2022 Nov 15;14(11):2529. doi:10.3390/v14112529.

Zhang Z. Model building strategy for logistic regression: purposeful selection. Ann Transl Med. 2016 Mar;4(6):111. doi:10.21037/atm.2016.02.15.

Hazra A, Gogtay N. Biostatistics Series Module 6: Correlation and Linear Regression. Indian J Dermatol. 2016 Nov–Dec;61(6):593–601. doi:10.4103/0019-5154.193662.

Li Y, An Q, Sun Z, Gao X, Wang H. Risk factors and spatiotemporal distribution of lumpy skin disease occurrence in the Asian continent during 2012–2022: an ecological niche model. Transboun Emerg Dis. 2023;2023:6207149. doi:10.1155/2023/6207149.

Ratyotha K, Prakobwong S, Piratae S. Lumpy skin disease: A newly emerging disease in Southeast Asia. Vet World. 2022 Dec;15(12):2764–71. doi:10.14202/vetworld.2022.2764-2771.

Khan A, Du XX, Hussain R, Kwon OD. Lumpy skin disease: a threat to the livestock industry-A review. Agrobiological Records. 2022;9:22–36. doi:10.47278/journal.abr/2022.015.

Olaogun SC, Fosgate GT, Byaruhanga C, Marufu MC. The knowledge, attitudes, and practices of smallholder cattle farmers concerning the epidemiology of bovine fasciolosis in the North West Province, South Africa. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2023 Feb 25;55(2):97. doi:10.1007/s11250-023-03478-7.

Tenzer H, Pudelko M, Zellmer-Bruhn M. The impact of language barriers on knowledge processing in multinational teams. Journal of World Business. 2021 Feb;56(2):101184. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2020.101184.

Gari G, Waret-Szkuta A, Grosbois V, Jacquiet P, Roger F. Risk factors associated with observed clinical lumpy skin disease in Ethiopia. Epidemiol Infect. 2010 Nov;138(11):1657–66. doi:10.1017/S0950268810000506.

Arjkumpa O, Suwannaboon M, Boonrod M, Punyawan I, Liangchaisiri S, Laobannue P, et al. The first lumpy skin disease outbreak in Thailand (2021): epidemiological features and spatio-temporal analysis. Front Vet Sci. 2022 Jan 7;8:799065. doi:10.3389/fvets.2021.799065.

Kiplagat SK, Kitala PM, Onono JO, Beard PM, Lyons NA. Risk factors for outbreaks of lumpy skin disease and the economic impact in cattle farms of Nakuru County, Kenya. Front Vet Sci. 2020 May 29;7:259. doi:10.3389/fvets.2020.00259.

Issimov A, Kushaliyev K, Abekeshev N, Molla W, Rametov N, Bayantassova S, et al. Risk factors associated with lumpy skin disease in cattle in West Kazakhstan. Prev Vet Med. 2022 Oct;207:105660. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2022.105660.

Ochwo S, VanderWaal K, Munsey A, Nkamwesiga J, Ndekezi C, Auma E, et al. Seroprevalence and risk factors for lumpy skin disease virus seropositivity in cattle in Uganda. BMC Vet Res. 2019 Jul 8;15(1):236. doi:10.1186/s12917-019-1983-9.

Dubie T, Hussen Abegaz F, Dereje B, Negash W, Hamid M. Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of lumpy skin disease of cattle in selected districts of Afar Region, Ethiopia. Vet Med (Auckl). 2022 Aug 16;13:191–9. doi:10.2147/VMRR.S375273.

European Food Safety Authority, Calistri P, De Clercq K, Gubbins S, Klement E, Stegeman A, et al. Lumpy skin disease epidemiological report IV: data collection and analysis. EFSA J. 2020 Feb 27;18(2):e06010. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2020.6010.



How to Cite

Le, N. H. T. ., Padungtod, P. ., & Pham, L. T. (2024). Investigation of Risk Factors for Lumpy Skin Disease and Prevention Practices in Dak Lak, Vietnam, 2021–2022. Outbreak, Surveillance, Investigation & Response (OSIR) Journal, 17(1), 45–55.



Original article