Caring for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) none

Main Article Content

Pimsiri Bhusiri
Nuengruetai Kanchantr
Prapawan Praevanich
Chavalee Boonto
Parvinee Saiklang


Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are disorders of neurological development in which the exact cause is unknown. This situation leads to parental stress, anxiety,depression, negative emotional responses, role conflict due to the time-consuming nature of caring for these children, and family financial constraints. For children with ASD,they have behavioral problems, and impaired social interaction and communication. It
is difficult for parents to discover an autism spectrum disorder in their children early because they cannot simply communicate their problems with others. Their general appearance is similar to normal children; therefore, children with autism spectrum disorders lose the opportunity to receive proper treatment and care early due to insufficient parents’ knowledge regarding autism. If these children obtain the proper treatment and care, they will grow up and succeed in their lives and studies. The cares for children with ASD from this study are behavioral and social interventions, and pharmacological therapy. This article aims to review the etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations, and interventional management of children with ASD.

Keywords: Care, Children, Autism spectrum disorder, Interventional management


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Bhusiri P, Kanchantr N, Praevanich P, Boonto C, Saiklang P. Caring for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): none. Rama Nurs J [Internet]. 2021 Dec. 24 [cited 2022 May 28];27(3):299-312. Available from:


Hockenberry MJ, Wilson D, Rodgers C. Wong’s essentials of pediatric nursing. 10th ed. St. Louis: Elsevies; 2017.

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5thed. Washington

DC: Publishing; 2013.

Estes A, Swain DM, MacDuffie KE.The effects of early autism intervention on parents and family adaptive

functioning. Pediatr Med. 2019;2(21):1-14.

Hyman SL, Levy SE, Myers SM, AAP Council on Children with disabilities, section on developmental and

behavioral pediatrics. Executive summary: identification,evaluation, and management of children with autism

spectrum disorder. Pediatrics. 2020;145(1):e20193448.

Elflein J. Countries with the highest rates of autism among children worldwide as of 2018; 2019 [cited 2020

March 3]. Available from:

Mental Health Department, Ministry of Public Health.Autistic news [Internet];2017 [cited 2020 October 18].

Available from:

Begum R, Mamin FA. Impact of autism spectrum disorder on family. Autism Open Access. 2019;9(244):1-6. doi:

35248/2165- 7890.19.09.244

World Health Organization. Autism spectrum disorders [Internet]; 2019 [cited 2020 March 3]. Available from: sheets/detail/autism-spectrum-disorders

Llias K, Cornish K, Kumar AS, Park MS, Golden KJ.Parenting stress and resilience in parents of children with

autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Southeast Asia: a systematic review. Front Psychol. 2018; 9(280): 1-14.

Crowell D, Keluskar J, Gorecki A. Parenting behavior and the development of children with autism spectrum

disorder. Comprehensive Psychiatry. 2019;90:21-9.

Ooi K L, Ong Y S, Jacob S A, Khan T. A meta-synthesis on parenting a child with autism. Neuropsychiatric

Disease and Treatment2016. 12:745-62.

State MW, Levitt P. The conundrums of understanding genetic risks for autism spectrum disorders.Nature

Neuroscience. 2019;14(12):1499–1506.doi:10.1038/nn.2924

Jure R. Autism pathogenesis: the superior colliculus. Front Neurosci. 2019;12:1209.

Colvert E, Tick B, McEwen F, Stewart C, Curran SR,Woodhouse E, et al. Heritability of autism spectrum

disorder in population-based twin sample. JAMA Psychiatry 2015;72(5):415-23. doi:10.1001/jama psychiatry. 2014.3028

Nelson III CA, Bos K, Gunnar MR, Sonuga-Barke EJS.The neurobiological toll of early human deprivation.

Monogr Soc Res Child Dev. 2011;76(4):127–46.doi:10.1111/j.15405834.2011.00630

Samsam M, Ahangari R, Naser SA. Pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders: revisiting gastrointestinal

involvement and immune imbalance. World J Gastroenterol.2014;20(29):9942-51.

Hartmann A. Autism and its impact on families. [thesis].St. Paul: St. Catherine University; 2012.

Krivichian C. Autism spectrum screening questionnaire for children under 2 years old. Journal of Mental Health of Thailand. 2014;22(1):1-10. (in Thai)

Kunchune P. The development of the screening tool for toddlers & young children at risk for autism spectrum

disorders. Ratchaphruek Journal. 2019;17 (3): 91-100.(in Thai)

Rajanukul Institute. Manual for parents with autism spectrum disorders. 3rd ed. Bangkok: The Agricultural

Cooperative Federation of Thailand.; 2014. (in Thai)

Rutter ML. Progress in understanding autism: 2007–2010. J Autism Dev Disord. 2011;41:395–404. doi


McConkey R, Truesdale-Kennedy M, Cassidy A.Mothers’ recollection of early features of autism spectrum

disorders. Child Adolesc Ment Health. 2009;14(1):31-6.

Dawson G, Rogers S, Munson J, Smith M, Winter J,Greenson J, Donaldson A, Varley J. Randomized,

controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism:The Early Start Denver Model. Pediatrics. 2010; 125(1),


Mohammadzaheri F, Koegel LK, Rezaee M, Rafiee SM.A randomized clinical trial comparison between pivotal

response treatment (PRT) and structured applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention for children with autism. J

Autism Dev Disord. 2014; 44(11),2769–2777.

Estes A, Munson J, Rogers SJ, Greenson J, Winter J,Dawson G. Long- term outcomes of early intervention in

-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder. AmAcad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015; 54(7):580–7.

Rogers S J, Estes A, Lord C, Vismara L, Winter J,Fitzpatrick A, Guo M, Dawson G. Effects of a brief Early

Start Denver Model (ESDM)-Based parent intervention on toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders: a

randomized controlled trial. Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;51(10):1052–65.

Schreibman L, Dawson, G, Stahmer AC, Landa R, Rogers S J, McGee G G, et al. Naturalistic developmental

behavioral interventions: Empirically validated treatments for autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and

Developmental Disorder. 2015;45:2411–28.

Bhusiri P, Phuphaibul R, Suwonnaroop N,Viwatwongkasem C. Effects of parenting skills training

program for aggressive behavior reduction among schoolaged children: a quasi-experimental study. Pacific Rim Int J Nurs Res. 2018;22(4):332-46.

Ingersoll B, Schreibman R. Teaching reciprocal imitation skills to young children with autism using a naturalistic behavioral approach: effects on language, pretend play,and joint attention. J Autism Dev Disord. 2006;36(4):487-505.

Green J, Charman T, McConachie H, Aldred C, Slonims V, Howlin P, et al. Parent-mediated communicationfocused treatment in children with autism (PACT): a randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;375: 2152–60.

Dekker V, Nauta MH, Timmerman ME, Mulder EJ, vander VeenMulders L, van den Hoofdakker BJ, et al. Social

skills group training in children with autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Eur Child Adoles

Psy. 2019; 28:415-24.

Janzen T B, Thaut M H. Rethinking the role of music in the neurodevelopment of autism spectrum disorder. Music& Science. 2018;1:1-18.

Ghasemtabar SN, Hosseini M, Fayyaz I, Arab S,Naghashian H, Poudineh Z. Music therapy: an effective

approach in improving social skills of children with autism.Adv Biomed Res. 2015;4:157.

Sharda M, Tuerk C, Chowdhury R, Jamey K, Foster N,Custo-Blanch M, et al. Music improves social

communication and auditory-motor connectivity in children with autism. Transl Psychiatry. 2018;8:231.


Wilkins RW, Hodges DA, Laurienti PJ. Steen M, Burdette JH. Network science and the effects ofmusic preference on functional brain connectivity: from Beethoven to Eminem. Scientific Reports. 2014;4:6130. doi:


Lai G, Pantazatos SP, Schneider H, Hirsch J. Neural systems for speech and song in autism. J Neurol. 2012;

; 961–75.doi:10.1093/brain/awr335

Sreewichian P. Exploring the influence of music intervention on social and communication development in

autism spectrum disorder. Mahidol Music Journal.2019;2(1):33-50. (in Thai.)

Wetherby AM, Guthrie W, Woods J, Schatschneider C,Holland RD, Morgan L, et al. Parent-implemented social

intervention for toddlers with Autism:an RCT. Pediatrics.2014;134:1084–93.

Han ZR, Ahemaitijiang N, Yan J, Hu X, Parent J, Dale C, etal. Parent mindfulness, parenting, and child psychopathology in China. Mindfulness. 2019; 1-10.

Ridderinkhof A, De Bruin EI, Blom R, Bögels SM.Mindfulness-based program for children with autism

spectrum disorder and their parents: direct and long-term improvements. Mindfulness. 2018;9: 773-91.

Siller M, Swanson M, Gerber A, Hutman T, Sigman M.A parent-mediated intervention that targets responsive

parental behaviors increases attachment behaviors in children with ASD: results from a randomized clinical trial.

Autism Dev Disord. 2014;44(7):1720–32.

McCracken JT, McGough J, Shah B, Cronin P, Hong D,Aman M G Arnold L E, et al. Risperidone in children with

autism and serious behavioral problems. N Engl J Med.2002;347(5):314-21.

Singhi P, Malhi P. Risperidone in children with autism:randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind

study. J Child Neurol. 2006;21:450-55.

Owen R, Sikich L, Marcus RN, Corey-Lisle P, Manos G,McQuade RD, et al. Aripiprazole in the treatment of

irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder. Pediatrics. 2009;124(6):1533-40.

Bartolomeis A, Tomasetti C, Iasevoli F. Update on the mechanism of action of aripiprazole: translational insights into antipsychotic strategies beyond dopamine receptor antagonism. CNS Drugs. 2015;29:773-99.

Hollander E, Chaplin W, Soorya L, Wasserman S, Novotny S, Rusoff J, et al. Divalproex sodium vs placebo for the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Neuropsychopharmacology.2010;35:990–98.

Politte LC, Scahill L, Figueroa J, McCracken JT, King B,McDougle CJ. A randomized, placebo controlled trial of

extended-release guanfacine in children with autism spectrum disorder and ADHD symptoms: an analysis of

secondary outcome measures. Neuropsychopharmacology.2018;43:1772–78.

Harfterkamp M, van de Loo-Neus G, MinderaaRB, vander Gaag RJ, Escobar R, Schacht A, et al. A randomized

double-blind study of atomoxetine versus placebo for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in

children with autism spectrum disorder. J Am Acad of Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;51(7):733-741.

Amold LE, Aman M G, Cook A M, Witwer AN, ThompsonS, Ramadan Y. Atomoxetine for hyperactivity in autism spectrum disorders: placebo-controlled crossover pilot trial. Am Child Acad Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;45(10):