Promoting of Critical Thinking Skills in Nursing Students Through Reflective Thinking
Keywords:: Critical Thinking skills, Reflective thinking, Nursing students
Critical Thinking is a process of analyzing individual experiences in a situation for decision making. This skill is essential for nursing process and clinical practices. Thus, teaching strategies are needed for enhancing critical thinking in nursing students.This study aimed to compare the pre-post critical thinking skill test among nursing students by applying reflective thinking strategy (reflective journal) in psychiatric clinical practices and to find if a reflective thinking strategy would improve nursing students’ critical thinking skills. A two- group experimental study with a pre-post critical thinking test was conducted. The sample were 3rd year nursing students in Boromrajonani college of nursing Chiang Mai Thailand. The participants were systematic divided by GPA into an intervention group (n=24) assigned to do reflective journaling after their clinical nursing activities and a control group (n= 24) without reflective journaling, during their psychiatric clinical practices for 4 weeks. The reflective journaling forms based on Gibbs’s Reflective Cycle and the critical thinking test by Sriprai Chaiya with validity of 7.6 were used.The score of pre-post critical thinking test were compared within groups by pair t-test and the post critical thinking test score of control and intervention groups were compared by Independent t – test
Research finding as follows : 1.The score of pre-post critical thinking skill of both control and intervention groups were in moderate level ( = 49.2 + 1.33 )and Inference skill was the lowest in the 5 factors of critical thinking skill. 2.The post-test critical thinking score was significant higher than pre-test score in the intervention group ( t = 0.046 , P< 0.05) but no statistically difference in the control group( t = 0.669 , P> 0.05). 3. There is no significant difference of post-test critical thinking score between control and intervention groups( t = 0.654 , P> 0.05).
Conclusion and suggestion of this study, It was effective to implement reflective thinking strategy in the clinical practice to improve the critical skills in nursing students. Further teaching strategies should be considered to promote the inference critical thinking skill in nursing students.
Andreou, C., Papastavrou, E., & Merkouris, A. (2013) Learning styles and critical thinking relationship in baccalaureate nursing education: a systematic review. Nurse Educ Today, 34(3), 362-71.
Boromarajonani College of Nursing,Chiang Mai.(2014). Satisfaction Toward Nursing Graduated Class 12 in Academic year 2012 from stakeholders. Resarch Report. Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chiang Mai. Public Health Ministry.(In Thai).
Burton, A. J. (2000). Reflection: nursing’s practice and education panacea? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(5), 1009-1017.
Baker, C. R. (1996). Reflective Learning: A Teaching Strategy for Critical Thinking. Journal of Nursing Education, 35 (1), 19-22.
Chaiya,S.,(1998). EFFECTS OF CLINICAL TEACHING BY USING PORTFOLIO ON CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY AND SELFDIRECTED LEARNING READINESS OF NURSING STUDENTS. Master. Nursing Science (Nursing Education) Research Report. Chulalongkorn University. Bangkok. (Thailand). Graduate School. (In Thai).
Chan, S. (2013). Taking evidence-based nursing practice to the next level. International Journal Of Nursing Practice, 19(s3), 191-192.
Chirema, K.D. (2007). The use of reflective journals in the promotion of reflection and learning in post-registration nursing students. Nurse Education Today, 27(3), 192-202.
Colley, B. M., Bilics, A. R., & Lerch, C. M. (2012) "Reflection: A Key Component to Thinking Critically," The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 3(1), 1-14.
Croke, E. (2004). The use of structured reflective journal questions to promote fundamental development of clinical decision-making abilities of the first-semester nursing student. Contemp Nurse, 17(1-2),125-136.
Davies, E. (1995). Reflective practice. Journal of Nursing Education, 34(4 ), 167-174.
Edwards, S. (2017). Reflecting differently. New dimensions: reflection-before-action and reflection-beyond-action. International Practice Development Journal, 7(1), 1-14. doi:10.19043/ipdj.71.002
Ennis, Robert H. (2015). Critical thinking: A streamlined conception (A revised version of 1991b, below). A handbook of critical thinking in higher education. New York:Palgrave Macmillan.
Feng, R., Chen, M., & Pai, Y. (2010). Critical thinking competence and disposition of clinical nurses in a medical center. Journal Of Nursing Research (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins), 18(2), 77-86. doi:10.1097/JNR.0b013e3181dda6f6
Forneris, S.G.,& Peden-McAlpine, C. (2007). Evaluation of a reflective learning intervention to improve critical thinking in novice nurses. J Adv Nurs, 57(4), 410-21
Fakude, L., & Bruce, J. (2003). Journaling: a quasi-experimental study of student nurses' reflective learning ability. Curationis, 26(2), 49-55.
Getliffe, K. A. (1996). Reflection in the assessment of practice for undergraduate nursing students. J Nurs Stud, 33(4), 361-374.
Gibbs, G. (1988). Learning by doing: A guide to teaching learning methods. Oxford: Oxford Brookes University.
Heaslip, P (1993). Critical Thinking and Nursing. Revised 2008 Thompson Rivers University, Box 3010, 900 McGill Road, Kamloops, BC Canada, V2C 5N3 email@example.com ) from http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/critical-thinking-and-nursing/834
Jutarasaga, M., (2013). Systems Thinking : Teaching Application. Academic Project of Praboromarajchanok Institute of Health Workforce Development , Ministry of Public Health. (In Thai).
Johns, C. (2000). Becoming a Reflective Practitioner. London: Blackwell Science.
Khemmani, T.(2011). Analysis, Synthesis, Creative and Critical Thinking Skills: Integration in Teaching-Learning Plan .The journal of the royal institute of Thailand, (2),188-204. (In Thai).
Klunklin, P., Thaiyapirom, N., & Woragidpoonpol, P., (2008). Learning experiences through reflective thinking diaries on practice of child health promotion among nursing students. Journal Of Nursing and Education, 1(2), 2-18. (In Thai).
Kosawanon, S.,Rungamornrat,S., &Panbangpra,S., (2015). Effect of Case Study Teaching Method on Critical Thinking in Nursing Students . J Nurs Sci, 33(3), 99-108. (In Thai).
Kejkomkaew,S., (2009). The Development of a Practicum Course to Promote Reflection Skills among Nursing Students. Journal of Nursing and Health Science, 3(3), 10-17. (In Thai).
Kok, J., & Chabeli, M. (2002). Reflective journal writing:how it promotes reflective thinkingin clinical nursing education: a students' perspective. Curationis, 25(3), 35-42.
Lausuwanagoon, W., (2003 ). Factors Influencing the Critical Thinking of Nursing Students Studying at the Faculty of Nursing Burapha University . The Journal of Faculty of Nursing Burapha University, 11(3), 46-68. (In Thai).
Moolkum, S., ( 2004).Analytical Thinking. Pappim printing company. Bangkok. 4Th edition, (In Thai).
Mortellaro , C .(2015) . Exploring Factors Influencing Critical Thinking Skills in Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Mixed Methods Study. Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs). Paper 2107..
Phongprapapan, P., Kopachon,C., & Suttara, S. (2003). Critical Thinking of nursing Students, Boromarajonani College of nursing. Research Report . Boromarajonani College of nursing,Nakornphanom. (In Thai).
Poungjuntaradej, N.,& Pleankaew, P.(2016). FACTORS RELATED TO NURSING STUDENTS' CRITICAL THINKING, POLICE NURSING COLLEGE. Journal of The Police Nurses,8(1), 125-135. (In Thai).
Promnoi, C., Promtape, N., & Tasaneesuwan, S. (2012). Critical Thinking Ability among Senior Nursing Students Faculty of Nursing, Prince of Songkla University. SONGLANAGARIND JOURNAL OF NURSING, 32 (3), 1-11. (In Thai).
Parker, W., & Jarolimek ,J. (1984). Citizenship And The Critical Role Of The Social Studies. Washington, DC: National Council for the Social Studies, 1984. ED 244 880.
Papathanasiou,L.V., Kleisiaris,C.F., Fradelos,E.C., Kakou,K., & Kourkouta, L.(2014). Critical Thinking: The Development of an Essential Skill for Nursing Students. Acta Informatica Medica, 22(4): 283–286.
Perciful, E.G.,& Nester, P.Z. (1996). The effect of an innovative clinical teaching method on nursing students' knowledge and critical thinking skills. J Nurs Educ. 35(1):23-8.
Purvis , C. A. (2009). Factors That Influence The Development Of Critical Thinking Skills. In Associate Degree Nursing Students. A Dissertation Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the University of Georgia in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Degree Doctor Of Education Athane , Georgia . 2009.
Ratanakomol, P., Krirkchaiwan,D., Onkam,O., & Nunla-ong, Y., (1999). Critical Thinking of Bachelor in Nursing Science Students, Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chainat. (Research Report) Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chainat : Ministry of Public Health. (In Thai).
Sirisupluxana, P., (2013). Teaching Nursing Students to Develop Critical Thinking Skills. The Journal of Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Nakhonratchasima,19 (2), 5-19. (In Thai).
Sukjaroen, N., & Yoonisil, W.(2015).The Systematic Review of Instruction for Enhance Higher Order Thinking: Critical Thinking and Creative Thinking. Journal of Education Mahasarakhan University, 9(3), 54-65. (In Thai).
Schub, E. (2016). Critical Thinking: Enhancing Critical Thinking Skills.
Cinahl Information Systems, Glendale, CA . Retrieved from https://www.ebscohost.com/assets-sample content/ NRCPlus_ EBCS_Coaching_and_Mentorship_for_Retention_of_Nurses.pdf
Schön, D. (1983). The Reflective Practitioner: How professionals think in action.
London:TempleSmith. Retrieved from https:// hhs.hud.ac.uk/ lqsu/ Sessionsforall/ supp/Sch%C3%B6n%20reflection-in%20and%20-on%20action.pdf
The Nursing and Midwifery Profession Act BE 2528, together with the Ministerial Regulations,2014. Competency of Nursing and Midwifery Professional 2010. 24 April 2011. P. 5. (In Thai).
Tilley ,F.M., Claire, M .L ., & Parrish, B.(2007). Critical and Reflective Thinking The Handbook of Sustainability Literacy. Supported by University of Brighton, Faculty of Arts: Sustainability Network.
Yuan, H., Kunaviktikul, W., Klunklin, A., & William ,A.B. (2008).Promoting Critical Thinking Skills Through Problem-Based Learning. CMU. J. of Soc. Sci. and Human, 2(2), 85-100.
Wichainate, K. (2014). Reflective Thinking: Teaching Students to Develop Critical Thinking
in Nursing Practice. Journal of The Police Nurses, 6(2),188-199. (In Thai).
Watson, G. and Glasser E. M. (1980). Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking
Appraisal Manual. New York : Harcourt Brace and World.
Williams, K. & Woolliams, M. (2012). Reflective Writing (Pocket Study Skills). (1st Published, 2012 edition) . Oxford Brookes UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
Wong, F., Kember, D., Chung, L., & Yan, L. (1995). Assessing the level of student reflection from reflective journals. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, 22(1), 48-57. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1995.22010048.x
ข้อความที่ปรากฏในบทความแต่ละเรื่องในวารสารวิชาการเล่มนี้เป็นความคิดเห็นส่วนตัวของผู้เขียนแต่ละท่านไม่เกี่ยวข้องกับมหาวิทยาลัยเชียงใหม่ และคณาจารย์ท่านอื่นๆในมหาวิทยาลัยฯ แต่อย่างใด ความรับผิดชอบองค์ประกอบทั้งหมดของบทความแต่ละเรื่องเป็นของผู้เขียนแต่ละท่าน หากมีความผิดพลาดใด ๆ ผู้เขียนแต่ละท่านจะรับผิดชอบบทความของตนเองแต่ผู้เดียว