Self-Leadership of Nurses in Tertiary Hospitals, Yunnan Province, the People’s Republic of China
Keywords:Self-Leadership, Staff Nurse, Nurse Manager, Tertiary Hospital
Self-leadership is important in changing environments because it improves job performance, enhances group leadership and quality of care. The purposes of this descriptive comparative study were to explore the self-leadership of staff nurses and nurse managers and to compare the differences between these groups. The sample included 406 staff nurses and 316 nurse managers who were selected using multistage sampling technique from five tertiary hospitals in Yunnan Province, the People’s Republic of China. Research instruments included the Demographic Data Form and the Revised Self-Leadership Questionnaire (RSLQ). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of RSLQ for staff nurses and nurse managers were .97 and .91 respectively. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test, and independent t-test were used for data analysis.
Results were as follows:
- For staff nurses, the overall mean score of self-leadership (x̄ = 3.50, SD = .59) and its three dimensions including behavior-focused strategies (x̄ = 3.53, SD = .60), natural reward strategies (x̄ = 3.53, SD = .68), and constructive thought pattern strategies (x̄ = 3.45, SD = .65) were at a moderate level.
- For nurse managers, the overall mean score of self-leadership (x̄ = 4.02, SD = .45) and its three dimensions including behavior-focused strategies (x̄ = 4.03, SD = .46), natural reward strategies (x̄ = 4.01, SD = .54), and constructive thought pattern strategies (x̄ = 4.00, SD = .49) were at a high level.
- There were significant differences between staff nurses and nurse managers in overall mean score of self-leadership (t = -13.32, p < .01) and its dimensions including behavior-focused strategies (t = -12.77, p < .01), natural reward strategies (z = -9.90, p < .01), and constructive thought pattern strategies (t = -12.80, p < .01).
These results provide baseline information for nurse administrators to enhance the self-leadership skills of nurses in order to improve job performance, group leadership, and quality of care.
Burns, D. D. (1980). Mood therapy: The new approach to feeling good. New York: Morrow.
Carmeli, A., Meitar, R., & Weisberg, J. (2006). Self-leadership skills and innovative behavior at work. International Journal of Manpower, 27(1), 75-90.
China Social Welfare Foundation 919 Nurse Care Program. (2017). Investigation on the current situation of nurse group development in China. Retrieved from https://vcbeat.net/OTJkYmVhYWIzOTU0Nzk2ODJkYTZhODc5ZTQ wODQzMTA=
Choi, Y. H., & Kim, H. M. (2014). Effect of self-leadership recognized by newly-employed nurses on job satisfaction: Mediating effect of organizational commitment. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 23(4), 242-249.
Costello, M. L., Brunner, P. W., & Hasty, K. (2002). Preparing students for the empowered workplace: The risks and rewards in a management classroom. Active Learning in Higher Education, 3(2), 117-127.
Cui, W., Xuan, M., & Yin, J. (2010). The concept of empowerment and its application in nursing human resource management. Chinese Journal of Practical Nursing, 26(3), 67-70.
Furtner, M. R., Hiller, L. N., Martini, M., & Sachse, P. (2012). Self-leadership, motivation to lead, transformational leadership and super leadership: A key to organizational success in the 21th Century. International Journal of Business and Management Tomorrow, 2(7), 1-8.
George, B. (2010). True north: Discover your authentic leadership (Vol. 143). San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.
Houghton, J. D., & Neck, C. P. (2002). The revised self-leadership questionnaire: Testing a hierarchical factor structure for self-leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17(8), 672-691.
Houghton, J. D., Neck, C. P., & Manz, C. C. (2003). We think we can, we think we can, we think we can: The impact of thinking patterns and self-efficacy on work team sustainability. Team Performance Management: An International Journal, 9(1/2), 31-41.
Jia, J. (2013). Nurse Leadership and its influencing factors (Doctoral dissertation, Hangzhou Normal University, China).
Jooste, K., & Cairns, L. (2014). Comparing nurse managers and nurses' perceptions of nurses' self leadership during capacity building. Journal of Nursing Management, 22(4), 532-539.
Jooste, K., & Le Roux, L. Z. (2014). The practice of self-leadership in personal and professional development of contract nursing staff in the environment of a higher education institution: leadership and management. African Journal for Physical Health Education, Recreation and Dance, 20(Suppl. 1), 275-285.
Jung, M. H., & Koh, M. S. (2012). The effects of preceptor nurses' self-leadership on role recognition and job satisfaction. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 18(2), 146-154.
Kang, Y. S., Choi, Y. J., Park, D. L., & Kim, I. J. (2010). A study on nurses' self-leadership, self -esteem, and organizational effectiveness. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 16(2), 143-151.
Li, C., Zeng, T., Yang, Y., & Wang, Y. (2016). Challenge and reflect of nursing stratification management in China. Nursing Management in China, 16(10), 1430-1433.
Li, L. Y., Li, L., Du, J., Zhang, X., & Chen, L. (2016). The status and influencing factors of self-leadership among undergraduate nursing students in Beijing. Chinese Journal of Nursing, 51(8), 967-970.
Li, L., & Fu, H. (2017). China's health care system reform: Progress and prospects. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 32(3), 240-253.
Ling, Z., Petsunee, T., Bunpitcha, C., (2019). Perceived Leader-Member Exchange and Patient Safety Culture among Nurses in Tertiary Hospitals, Kunming, Yunnan Province, the People’s Republic of China. Nursing Journal, 46(2), 210-223.
Manz, C. C. (1986). Self-leadership: Toward an expanded theory of self-influence processes in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 11(3), 585-600.
Manz, C. C. (1992), Mastering Self-leadership: Empowering yourself for personal excellence. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Manz, C. C., & Neck, C. P. (1991). Inner leadership: Creating productive thought patterns. Academy of Management Perspectives, 5(3), 87-95.
Manz, C. C., & Sims, H. P., Jr. (1991). Superleadership: Beyond the myth of heroic leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 19(4), 18-35.
Megheirkouni, M. (2018). Self-leadership strategies and career success: insight on sports organizations. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 8(4), 393-409.
Min, S., Jeong, Y. J., Kim, H. S., Ha, S. Y., Ha, Y. J., & Kim, E. A. (2009). The moderating effect of self-leadership in relationship between self-image and work performance of nurses.Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 15(3), 355-364.
Mokuoane, M. L. (2014). The effect of work-stress and emotional intelligence on self-leadership amongst nurses in leadership positions in the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare in Lesotho (Doctoral dissertation, University of the Free State).
Moradpour, S., Abedi, H. A., & Bahonar, A. (2017). Investigating the relationship between self-leadership and resistance to organizational changes in the nursing managers of hospitals affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 2015. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 10(5), 1333-1340.
Norris, S. E. (2008). An examination of self-leadership. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1(2), 43-61.
Puer People’s Hospital. (2012). Handbook for nursing staff in Puer People's Hospital. China:The department of nursing.
Rickets, K., Carter, H., Place, N., & McCoy, T. (2012). A look inside: Self-leadership perceptions of extension educators. Journal of Extension, 50(5), v50-5a3.
Ross, S. (2014). A conceptual model for understanding the process of self-leadership development and action-steps to promote personal leadership development. Journal of Management Development, 33(4), 299-323.
Şahin, F. (2011). The interaction of self-leadership and psychological climate on job performance. African Journal of Business Management, 5(5), 1787-1794.
Sun, R., & Han, G. (2011). Discussion on the organization structure of medical quality management in tertiary hospitals. Jiangsu Health Service Management, 3, 42-43.
Twaddle, A. C. (Ed.). (2002). Health care reform around the world. Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Ugurluoglu, O., Saygılı, M., Ozer, O., & Santas, F. (2015). Exploring the impacts of personal factors on self leadership in a hospital setting. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management, 30(1), 3-13.
Van Zyl, E., Mokuoane, M., & Nel, P. (2017). The effect of work stress and emotional intelligence on self-leadership among nurses in leadership positions in the Lesotho Ministry of Health and Social Welfare. Africa Journal of Nursing and Midwifery, 19(1), 88-104.
Wang, J. (2016). Nurses in China are short of millions due to the low salaries, which makes it impossible to retain them. Retrieved from http://politics.people.com.cn/ n1/2016/0520/c1001-28365329.html
Wang, W. (2014). Investigation and development strategies of college students’ self-leadership in Hui Areas of China (Doctoral dissertation, Central China Normal University, China).
Won, H. J., & Cho, S. H. (2013). A review of research on self-leadership in nurses'. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 19(3), 382-393.
Yao, L., Ratanawadee, C., & Thitinut, A., (2016). Organizational Culture and Quality of Work Life Among Nurses in Tertiary Hospitals, Yunnan Province, The People’s Republic of China. Nursing Journal, 43(2), 116-128.
Yang, M., Ge, M., & Yang, X. (2018). Correlation between self-leadership and self-efficacy of nursing students. Nursing Study, 11(32), 1753-1754.
Yip, W. C. M., Hsiao, W. C., Chen, W., Hu, S., Ma, J., & Maynard, A. (2012). Early appraisal of China's huge and complex health-care reforms. The Lancet, 379(9818), 833-842.
Yu, S., & Ko, Y. (2017). Communication competency as a mediator in the self-leadership to job performance relationship. Collegian, 24(5), 421-425.
ข้อความที่ปรากฏในบทความแต่ละเรื่องในวารสารวิชาการเล่มนี้เป็นความคิดเห็นส่วนตัวของผู้เขียนแต่ละท่านไม่เกี่ยวข้องกับมหาวิทยาลัยเชียงใหม่ และคณาจารย์ท่านอื่นๆในมหาวิทยาลัยฯ แต่อย่างใด ความรับผิดชอบองค์ประกอบทั้งหมดของบทความแต่ละเรื่องเป็นของผู้เขียนแต่ละท่าน หากมีความผิดพลาดใด ๆ ผู้เขียนแต่ละท่านจะรับผิดชอบบทความของตนเองแต่ผู้เดียว