Effects of Breastfeeding on Pain in Full-term Neonates during Immunization Injections


  • paradee boonperm Faculty of Nursing, Srinakharinwirot University
  • Nongyao Lawin Faculty of Medicine Srinakharinwirot University


Pain, Full-term neonates, Breastfeeding, Immunization injections


Vaccination can induce pain in newborn infants and stress or anxiety in parents. This study used a two-group, quasi-experimental design. The objective was to compare pain levels during injectable immunization between breastfeeding and routine-care full-term neonates. The two hundred and twelve subjects were recruited from a group of term infants who had delivery without complications at HRH Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center in Nakhon Nayok province. The subjects were divided in two groups by purposive sampling; there were 106 cases in each group. The experimental group received injectable immunizations while breastfeeding, and the control group received immunization during routine care. The instruments used in this study were divided into 2 types: 1) brochures on breastfeeding position and the BCG vaccine; and 2) assessment of infant’s pain during injectable immunization by the Infant Pain Scale-NIPS (Lawrence et al., 1993). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Mann - Whitney U test.

The results show that pain levels in breastfed infants were significantly lower than the pain levels in routine-care infants with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001).       
          Therefore, breastfeeding could decrease an infant’s pain during immunization injections.


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Research Article