Factors Associated with Post-Concussion Syndrome in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury After Discharging from an Emergency Department


  • Noppanan Wongchai Srisavarindhira Thai Red Cross Institute of Nursing
  • Rotsukon Varitsakul Srisavarindhira Thai Red Cross Institute of Nursing
  • Nopmanee Tantivesruangdet สถาบันการพยาบาลศรีสวรินทิรา สภากาชาดไทย


Post-Concussion Syndrome, Mild traumatic brain injury, Emergency Room


Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) occurs more often in patients with mild traumatic brain injury, leading to the incidence of emergency room (ER) re-visits. This descriptive correlational study aimed to investigate PCS in patients with mild traumatic brain injury after being discharged from an ER and to examine correlational factors of PCS including age, co-morbid severity, injury severity, anxiety, and social support. The sample were 107 patients with mild traumatic brain injury who visited and were discharged from the emergency room within one week at a governmental hospital (super-tertiary level) and a private hospital (tertiary level). The Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI Form Y-1], the Social Support Questionnaire, the Charlson Comorbidity Index, and the Injury Severity Score were used to collect data. The reliability of the question- naires was tested. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of the first-three questionnaires were .90, .75 and .88, respectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson’s product moment correlation.

The results showed that the three symptoms occurring most in PCS were headache (56.1%), sleep disturbance (52.8%), and fatigue (48.6%). Most had five to eight symptoms (33.6%). Age and injury severity were positively correlated at a low level with post-concussion syndrome at a statistically significant level (r = .22 and r = .22, respectively, p <.05).

Emergency nurses can use this study’s results to provide care for patients with mild traumatic brain injury in the first week post-concussion and to develop nursing interventions to minimize the first week’s PCS severity.


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