Carbohydrate Intake and Hemoglobin A1c in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


  • Winut Duangsanjun Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University
  • Sririrat Panuthai Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University
  • Nattaya Suwankruhasn Faculty of Nursing, Chiang Mai University
  • Nattapong Kosachunhanun Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University


Carbohydrate intake, Hemoglobin A1c, Older adults, Type 2 diabetes mellitus


Older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus require a controlled diet to prevent subsequent complications. This research aimed to describe carbohydrate intake, hemoglobin A1c and the relationship between carbohydrate intake and hemoglobin A1c in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The sample consisted of 88 older adults diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus attending the health promotion hospital in Ban Tom and Mae Ka Sub-District, Muang District, Phayao Province. The sample was purposively selected based on the eligibility criteria. Data were collected using: 1) A 7-day Food Diary Record which was used to determine carbohydrate intake using the Nutrifacts Program software, and 2) a hemoglobin A1c analyzer. The validity and reliability of these instruments were approved prior to data collection. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and Pearson’s product-moment correlation.

The study results revealed that:

  1. Older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus had an average carbohydrate intake of 405.04 grams/day, representing average carbohydrate energy of 1278.72 kilocalories/day which accounted for 65.59% of total energy (1949.57 kilocalories).
  2. Older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus had average hemoglobin A1c of 7.60%. About two-thirds (65.91%) of the sample had hemoglobin A1c above the control level (≥ 7%); and
  3. Carbohydrate intake showed a positively significant relationship with hemoglobin A1c at a moderate level (r = .49, p < .05).

The findings can be used as information for health personnel to promote carbohydrate consumption control in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


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