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Sexual violence is both a profound public health problem and human rights violation, while the short and long-term consequences of it limit the potential of victims/ survivors to achieve an optimum standard of health and well-being. There are many important physical consequences of sexual violence. Pregnancy may occur in the absence of contraception and is particularly stressful if termination is not an option. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be acquired and, if untreated, can result in infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and pelvic inflammatory disease. In high-prevalence setting, the transmission of HIV during sexual assault is a major concern for victims/ survivors. Genital and other injuries may also occur in the course of sexual violence. Thus all victims need treatment for possible STIs, and in all but the lowest prevalence setting prophylaxis against HIV is also need. Injuries sustained may require treatment and psychological support is also of great importance.
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