Main Article Content
Introduction and Purposes: Women with cervical cancer experience symptom distress from both disease and treatment – side effect. There was evidenced the change of symptom distress as a curve. It increased from per to during treatment and decrease at post treatment. It was congruent with the symptom experience dimension in the symptom management model. Purposes of the study were to examine factors predicting the change of symptom distress using the Symptom Management Model as a conceptual framework.
Methods: Prospective predictive study design was used to collect data in 190 women from 4 hospitals: 1 hospital affiliated university, 2 military hospitals, and 1 hospital under the National Cancer Institute. Participants were asked to complete three questionnaires: Demographic, Disease, and Treatment Questionnaires, Sense of Coherence-13, and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Data were collected at pre, during, and one month post treatment.
Result: Results reported factors predicting symptom distress was education, sense of coherence, type of treatment, living arrangement, and treatment period. Meanwhile, age, marital status, family caregivers, and financial status could not predict symptom distress.
Conclusions: These findings indicate that the Symptom Management Model can partially provide an empirical explanation factors predict the change of symptom distress in Thai women with cervical cancer. However, health care providers should concern these factors to reduce women’s symptom suffering. Replication this framework in other cancer patients is recommended for further study.
2. WHO/ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cervical Cancer (HPV Information Center). Human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers: Summary and Report 2009. Available from: https://apps.who.int/hpvcentre/statistics/dynamic/ico/country_pdf/XWX.pdf?CFID=3797695&CFTOKEN=25736140. or www.who.int/hpvcentre.
3. Sumdaengrit B, Hanucharurnkul S, Dodd MJ, Wilailak S, Vorapongsathorn T, Pongthavornkamol K. Symptom experience and self-care among Thai women with cervical cancer. Pacific Rim Inter J Nurs Res. 2010;14(3):272-85.
4. Larson PJ, Carrieri-Kohlman V, Dodd MJ, Douglas M, Faucett J, Froelicher ES, et al. A model for symptom management. Image J Nurs Sch. 1994;26(4):272-5.
5. Dodd M, Janson S, Facione N, Faucett J, Froelicher ES, Humphreys J, et al. Advancing the science of symptom management. J Adv Nurs. 2001;33(5):668-76. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.2001.01697.x.
6. McCorkle R. The measurement of symptom distress. Semin Oncol Nurs. 1987;3(4):248-56. doi:10.1016/s0749-2081(87)80015-3.
7. Baider L, Andritsch E, Uziely B, Goldzweig G, Ever-Hadani P, Hofman G, et al. Effects of age on coping and psychological distress in women diagnosed with breast cancer: review of literature and analysis of two different geographical settings. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2003;46(1):5-16. doi:10.1016/s1040-8428(02)00134-8.
8. Maneschi F, Benedetti-Panici P, Scambia G, Salerno MG, D'Agostino G, Mancuso S. Menstrual and hormone patterns in women treated with high-dose cisplatin and bleomycin. Gynecol Oncol. 1994;54(3):345-8. doi:10.1006/gyno.1994.1221.
9. Kissanapantu N. Coping strategies and vulnerability in cervical cancer patient receiving radiation therapy [Master thesis]. Bangkok: Mahidol University; 1989.
10. Kolk AM, Hanewald GJ, Schagen S, Gijsbers van Wijk CM. A symptom perception approach to common physical symptoms. Soc Sci Med. 2003;57(12):2343-54. doi:10.1016/s0277-9536(02)00451-3.
11. Zabora J, BrintzenhofeSzoc K, Curbow B, Hooker C, Piantadosi S. The prevalence of psychological distress by cancer site. Psychooncology. 2001;10(1):19-28. doi:10.1002/1099-1611(200101/02)10:1<19::aid-pon501>3.0.co;2-6.
12. Antonovsky A. Unraveling the Mystery of Health: How People Manage Stress and Stay Well. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 1987.
13. Tishelman C, Taube A, Sachs L. Self-reported symptom distress in cancer patients: reflections of disease, illness or sickness? Soc Sci Med. 1991;33(11):1229-40. doi:10.1016/0277-9536(91)90071-j.
14. Williams PD, Ducey KA, Sears AM, Williams AR, Tobin-Rumelhart SE, Bunde P. Treatment type and symptom severity among oncology patients by self-report. Int J Nurs Stud. 2001;38(3):359-67. doi:10.1016/s0020-7489(00)00067-5.
15. Carlsson M, Strang P, Bjurström C. Treatment modality affects long-term quality of life in gynaecological cancer. Anticancer Res. 2000;20(1B):563-8.
16. Akechi T, Okamura H, Nishiwaki Y, Uchitomi Y. Predictive factors for suicidal ideation in patients with unresectable lung carcinoma. Cancer. 2002;95(5):1085-93. doi:10.1002/cncr.10769.
17. Antonovsky A. The structure and properties of the sense of coherence scale. Soc Sci Med. 1993;36(6):725-33. doi:10.1016/0277-9536(93)90033-z.
18. Portenoy RK, Thaler HT, Kornblith AB, Lepore JM, Friedlander-Klar H, Kiyasu E, et al. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale: an instrument for the evaluation of symptom prevalence, characteristics and distress. Eur J Cancer. 1994;30A(9):1326-36. doi:10.1016/0959-8049(94)90182-1.
19. Portenoy RK. Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Available from: https://www.mywhatever.com/cifwriter/content/41/pe1262.html.
20. Pongthavornkamol K. Coping with Side Effects and Emotional Distress Among Thai Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy (DISS). New York: NY: Rochester University; 2000.
21. Oken MM, Creech RH, Tormey DC, Horton J, Davis TE, McFadden ET, et al. Toxicity and response criteria of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group. Am J Clin Oncol. 1982;5(6):649-55.
22. Hanucharurnkul S, Intharasombat P, Putthawattana P. Daily hassles, sense of coherence, and general well-being of nursing faculty members. Thai J of Nurs Res. 1989;38:169-190.
23. Nintachan P, Namjuntra R, Hanucharumkul S. An analysis of the structure and properties of Antonovsky's sense of coherence questionnaire, Thai versions. Thai J Nurs Res. 2000;4(3):314-30.
24. Given CW, Given BA, Stommel M. The impact of age, treatment, and symptoms on the physical and mental health of cancer patients. A longitudinal perspective. Cancer. 1994;74(7 Suppl):2128-38. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(19941001)74:7+<2128::aid-cncr2820741721>3.0.co;2-j.
25. Yan H, Sellick K. Symptoms, psychological distress, social support, and quality of life of Chinese patients newly diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancer. Cancer Nurs. 2004;27(5):389-99. doi:10.1097/00002820-200409000-00009.
26. Larsen J, Nordström G, Björkstrand B, Ljungman P, Gardulf A. Symptom distress, functional status and health-related quality of life before high-dose chemotherapy with stem-cell transplantation. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2003;12(1):71-80.
27. Oh EG. Symptom experience in Korean adults with lung cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2004;28(2):133-9. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2003.11.012.
28. National Health Security office (NHSO). University Coverage of Healthcare Policy and the National Security Act 2002. Available from: https://www.nhso.go.th/eng/files/userfiles/file/2018/001/Thailand_NHS_Act.pdf.
29. McMillan SC, Small BJ. Symptom distress and quality of life in patients with cancer newly admitted to hospice home care. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2002;29(10):1421-8. doi:10.1188/02.ONF.1421-1428.
30. Chatkaw K. Selected factors influencing the powerlessness in cervical cancer patients receiving radiation therapy [Master thesis]. Bangkok: Mahidol University; 1995.