Nontraditional Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

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Ittikorn Spanuchart
Arkom Nongnuch
Youg Liu


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among patients who have chronic kidney disease (CKD). Nowadays, CKD per se is considered one of the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalents. Apart from traditional CVD risk factors, there are several possible determinants for CVD in patients with CKD, for example, uremic toxins, increased inflammatory stage, abnormal bone mineral metabolism, and positive calcium balance. In this narrative review, we offer a summary of the extensively studied biomarkers for CVD in patients with CKD, including uremic toxins (p-cresol, indoxyl sulfate, and advanced glycated end products), and a novel indicator of arterial stiffness, cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), which is an independent prognostic predictor for CVD. For the uremic toxins, we reviewed their metabolisms, particularly, how the reduced renal function in CKD patients affect their clearance and their clearance with dialysis. Also, we pay attention to the recent evidence on how those uremic toxins contribute to CVD and their clinical associations. We do not include the possible treatment targeting at those uremic toxins. As for the novel indicator of arterial stiffness, we reviewed the clinical application of CAVI in comparison to the standard indicator for arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity.


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How to Cite
Spanuchart, I., Nongnuch, A., & Liu, Y. (2020). Nontraditional Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease. Ramathibodi Medical Journal, 43(2), 51 - 60.
Review Articles


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