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Scoliosis is a deformity of the spine that is found in various groups of people. Scoliosis is most commonly found in female adolescents over about 10 years of aged. Severely abnormal spinal curvature can cause cardio-respiratory problems, back pain and psychosocial impacts. Scoliosis is classified as functional and structural scoliosis. Causes of structural scoliosis can be idiopathic neuromuscular abnormality, congenital, or vertebral degeneration. The diagnosis of scoliosis should be conducted by an orthopedist with history taking, physical examination, and radiographic image.
In general, management of scoliosis consists continuous observation when Cobb angle less than 25 degrees, brace wearing when Cobb angle between 25-40 degrees, and spinal surgery when Cobb angle more than 40 degrees. Physical therapy management for scoliosis consists specific exercises, self-awareness enhancement, and balance training focusing on increasing ability to perform activities of daily living. Physical therapy can be applied in the stage of bracing as well as the stage of pre- and post-spinal surgery.