Development of a Patient Empowerment Program to Promote Effective Breathing Capacity in Gynecological Patients at Risk of Ineffective Breathing after Abdominal Surgery

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Pornnida Khajorndumrongcherdkul
Malee Ngamprasert
Boonlert Viriyapak
Rangsima Thippayachit


Effective breathing reduces the problems during the recovery process for patients after surgery. This study shows that a patient empowerment program to promote effective breathing capacity in gynecological patients at risk of ineffective breathing after abdominal surgery could reduce the risk of respiratory complications and promote better recovery. The patient empowerment program includes a variety of actions and engagement, from assessing the patient's risk of ineffective breathing and encouraging positive interactions between nurses and patients while teaching patients how to practice effective breathing techniques to the effects of abdominal surgery on effective breathing. Teach patients proper breathing techniques and how to measure lung capacity with lung exercise equipment such as an incentive spirometer (Triflo). Encourage patients to practice continuous, effective breathing without stimulation. Identify and resolve the problems that prevent patients from using lung exercise equipment. The nurse uses a participatory and active teaching method to train the patients on the breathing exercise until they can do it flawlessly on their own. Keep a record of the patient's spirometry test, as it is an indicator of the patient's ability to breathe effectively. This study showed that the patients in the empowerment program could breathe effectively on day 1 and day 2 after surgery, with a mean lung volume of 900.0±173.2 ml/s and 972.0±199.0, respectively. This patient empowerment program demonstrates that encouraging postoperative patients to breathe more effectively is one of the methods for reducing the risk of respiratory complications and promoting better recovery among gynecological patients after surgery.


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Khajorndumrongcherdkul P, Ngamprasert M, Viriyapak B, Thippayachit R. Development of a Patient Empowerment Program to Promote Effective Breathing Capacity in Gynecological Patients at Risk of Ineffective Breathing after Abdominal Surgery. Siriraj Med Bull [Internet]. 2023 Jul. 1 [cited 2023 Dec. 1];16(3):222-9. Available from:
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