Effects of Warm Compresses on School-Age Children’s Perception of Pain during Venipuncture
Objective: To compare school-age children’s perception of pain during venipuncture
with and without warm compresses.
Design: Two-group experimental research with a pre-test and a post-test.
Procedure: The sample was school-age children (6-15 years) treated in the paediatric
surgical ward at Siriraj Hospital. The children, who were required to have venipuncture
prior to their scheduled surgery, displayed no disease-induced pain. They were selected
based on the inclusion criteria and, by means of simple random sampling (lot drawing),
divided into an experimental group (n = 40) and a control group (n = 40). Each
experimental group member received a warm compress above the venipuncture site and
on the occiput from before to after the venipuncture, a total of 4-5 minutes. The control
group, on the other hand, underwent standard venipuncture. The venipuncture was carried
out solely by the researcher’s assistant. Data were collected using a self-report scale
for facial expression of pain, which was completed before and after the venipuncture,
and a form measuring each participant’s satisfaction with the pain-reducing warm compress.
The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Mann Whitney U test.
Results: The experimental group’s score on the level of pain after the experiment
(mean = 2.45, SD = 2.81) was lower than that of the control group (mean 3.57, SD =
2.87). The difference between the two groups was statistically signifcant (Z = -2.338,
p = .019).
Recommendations: It is suggested that nurses adopt warm compresses to reduce
school-age children’s pain during venipuncture.
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