Stress and Stress-Coping Behaviour in Caregivers of Older Adults Having Parkinson’s Disease


  • ลินจง โปธิบาล
  • ทศพร คำผลศิริ
  • นรัชพร ศศิวงศากุล


caregivers of older adults, Parkinson’s disease, stress; coping behaviour


     Objective: To study stress levels and stress-coping behaviour of caregivers of older adults having Parkinson’s disease (PD), and to examine the relationship between disease stages, stress and coping behaviour.
     Design: Cross-sectional descriptive correlational research.
     Methodology: This study was conducted on a sample of 100 caregivers of older Parkinson’s disease patients treated at the Neurological Clinic of Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital between October 2017 and March 2018. All of the recruited caregivers met the inclusion criteria. Data were collected through 3 questionnaires, namely, 1) the Perceived Stress Scale; 2) the Jalowiec Stress-Coping Scale; and 3) the personal
information form for PD patients and their caregivers. Analysis of stress levels and stress-coping behaviour was performed using descriptive statistics, Spearman’s correlation and Pearson’s correlation.
     Results: Caregivers of older PD patients displayed moderate levels of stress and stress-coping behaviour. Regarding means of coping with stress, the subjects made moderate use of problem confrontation and problem alleviation methods, and displayed a low level of emotion management. Stress was found to be in negative relationships with overall stress-coping behaviour (r = -.251, p < .05), problem confrontation (r =
-.352, p < .01) and problem alleviation (r = -.270, p < .05), but not in any signifcant relationship with emotion management. Disease stages, on the other hand, were not found to be in any signifcant relationship with the caregivers’ stress and stress-coping behaviour.
     Recommendations: It is recommended that healthcare personnel working with older PD patients assess their caregivers’ stress and stress-coping behaviour and plan a proper intervention to enable them to manage their stress and develop appropriate stress-coping methods.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Pringsheim T, Jette N, Frolkis A, Steeves TD. The prevalence of Parkinson’s disease: a systematic review
and meta-analysis. Mov Disord. 2014;29(13):1583-90.
2. Jankovic J, Tolosa E. Parkinson’s disease & moment disorder (6th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer. 2015.
3. Muangpaisan W, Hori H, Brayne C. Systematic review of the prevalence and incidence of Parkinson’s disease in Asia. J Epidemiol. 2009;19(6):281-93.
4. Bhidayasiri R, Wannachai N, Limpabandhu S, Choeytim S, Suchonwanich Y, Tananyakul S, et al. A national
registry to determine the distribution and prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in Thailand: implications of urbanization and pesticides as risk factors for Parkinson’s disease. Neuroepidemiology. 2011;37(3-4):222-30.
5. Poungvarin N. Parkinson’s disease. Bangkok: Ruenkaew Printing; 2013.
6. Hoehn MM, Yahr MD. Parkinsonism: onset, progression, and mortality. Neurology.1967; 17(5):427-42.
7. Lazarus RS, Folkman S. Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer; 1984.
8. Santos-García D, Anon M, Fuster-Sanjurjo L, de la Fuente-Fernández R. Duodenal levodopa/carbidopa infusion therapy in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease leads to improvement in caregivers’ stress and burden. Eur J Neurol. 2012;19(9):1261-5.
9. Lawton MP, Moss M, Kleban MH, Glicksman A, Rovine M. A two-factor model of caregiving appraisal and psychological well-being. J Gerontol. 1991;46: 181-9.
10. Jalowiec A. Confrmatory factor analysis of the Jalowiec Coping Scale. In Waltz CF, Strickland OL, editors.
Measurement of nursing outcomes: measurement client outcome. New York: Springer; 1988. p. 283-308.
11. Santos-Garcia D, deDeus T, Lopez-Pazos E, MaciasArribi M, Llaneza-Gonzalez MA, Echarri-Piudo A, de la Fuente-Fernandez R. Management of complications related to intraduodenal infusion of levodopa/carbidopa in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Revista de Neurologia. 2014; 58(11): 505-15.
12. Prachuablarp C, Wirojratana V, Jitramontree N, Viriyavejakul A. The relationship between mutuality,
predictability and caregiver role strain in older persons with Parkinson’s disease. Journal of The Royal Thai Army Nurse. 2014;15(3):235-45.75
13. Kahn RL, Goldfarb AI, Pollack M, Peck A. Brief objective measures for the determination of mental status in the aged. Am J Psychitry. 1960; 117(4):326-8. Available from:
14. Dong Y, Peng CYJ. Principled missing data methods for researchers. Springer Plus [Internet]. 2013
[cited 2018 Oct 10]; 2(222): 1-17. Available from URL:
15. Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav.. 1983; 385-96.
Available from URL:
16. Mingkuan P. Stress and coping in the elderly stroke patients. [master’s thesis]. [Chiang Mai]: Chiang Mai
University; 1999.
17. Burns N, Grove SK. The practice of nursing research: appraisal. synthesis, and generation of evidence. 6th
ed. States of America: Saunders; 2009.
18. Cohen JW. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates; 1988.
19. Dayapoğlu N, Tan M. The care burden and social support levels of caregivers of patients with multiple sclerosis. KONTAKT [Internet]. 2017; 1: 19–25.Available from: j.kontakt.2016.12.001
20. Abdollahpour I, Nedjat S, Salimi Y. Positive Aspects of Caregiving and Caregiver Burden: A Study of Caregivers of Patients with Dementia. J Geriatr Psychitry Neurol. 2018; 31(1): 34-8.
21. Jullamaet P, Tanatwanit Y. Stress and Coping of Caregivers of Stroke Patients. Journal of Faculty of Nursing Burapha University. 2001; 9(1): 32-45.
22. Iavarone A, Ziello AR, Pastore F, Fasanaro AM, Poderico C. Caregiver burden and coping strategies
in caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014; 10: 1407-13.
23. Dunkel-Schetter C, Feinstein LG, Taylor SE, Falke RL. Patterns of coping with cancer. Health Psychol.
1992; 11(2): 79-87.
24. Curtis R, Groarke A, Coughlan R, Gsel A. The influence of disease severity, perceived stress, social support
and coping in patients with chronic illness: a 1 year follow up. Phychol Health Med. 2004;9(4): 456-75.
25. Madhyastha S, Latha KS, Kamath A. Stress, Coping and Gender Differences in Third Year Medical Students.
J Health Manag.. 2014;16(2):315-326.
26. Li L, Lin C, Liang LJ, Ji G. Exploring coping and social support with gender and education among people
living with HIV in China. AIDS Behav. 2016;20(2):317-24. doi: 10.1007/s10461-015-1232-6.
PubMed PMID: 26494110
27. Brennan PL, Holland JM, Schutte KK, Moos RH. Coping trajectories in later life: A 20-year predictive study.
Aging Ment Health. 2012;16(3): 305-16. doi:10.1080/ 13607863.2011.628975. PubMed PMID:22394319
28. Yu B, Chen X, Liu L. Analysis of coping styles of elderly women patients with stress urinary incontinence.
IJNSS [Internet]. 2016 Jan [cited 2019 Jan 30];3(2):[about 5p.]. Available from: 1016/j.ijnss.2015.10.009
29. Ozdemir D, Arslan FT. An investigation of the relationship between social support and coping with stress in women with breast cancer. Psycho-Oncol. 2018;27(9): 2214-9 doi: 10 1002/pon.4798.PubMed PMID: 29905003
30. Rafyah I, Suttharangsee W, Sangchan H. Social support and coping of Indonesian family caregivers caring for persons with Schizophrenia. NMJN [Internet].2011 July [cited 2019 Jan 30];1(2): [about 10p..].
Available from fle:///C:/Users/FON/Downloads/979-2563-1-PB%20(3).pdf



How to Cite

โปธิบาล ล, คำผลศิริ ท, ศศิวงศากุล น. Stress and Stress-Coping Behaviour in Caregivers of Older Adults Having Parkinson’s Disease. TJNC [Internet]. 2019 Apr. 23 [cited 2022 Nov. 28];34(2):62-75. Available from: