Development of an Ergonomic Self-Care Program for Aged Vendors


  • Kanokwan Hounsri Prince of Songkla University
  • พัชรี คมจักรพันธุ์
  • แสงอรุณ อิสระมาลัย


self-care, ergonomic, older vendors, low back pain, knee osteoarthritis


      Objective: To develop an ergonomic self-care programme and test the feasibility of promoting it amongst older vendors.
     Design: Developmental research.
     Methodology: The programme was developed in two stages. The frst stage of the development involved three steps: (1) an analysis of existing bodies of knowledge and of older vendors’ work-induced illness situations; (2) research on and critical appraisal of empirical evidence; and (3) designing of ergonomic self-care activities by integrating the knowledge synthesised from the empirical evidence with a self-care promotion process and risk management guidelines. The second stage was for examination of the programme’s qualifcations in terms of content validity and practicability.
     Results: The developed programme consisted of necessary self-care activities, namely,proper ergonomic working postures, appropriate management of working environment, and muscle-strengthening exercise. The programme, which continued for eight weeks, required both individual and group participation in seven components: (1) identifcation of job hazards;(2) basic education on knee osteoarthritis and low back pain in older adults, proper ergonomic working postures and appropriate management of working environment, to reduce disease severity; (3) prioritisation of risks; (4) designing ergonomic management methods; (5)
setting self-care goals and plans; (6) implementation; and (7) workplace visits. The results of the content validity check confrmed the programme’s conformity to its objectives and conceptual framework. In terms of practicability, the ergonomic self-care programme and the programme training session were practical for the older vendors’ context. The media used to provide exercise guidelines, however, was diffcult for the older vendors to comprehend and, therefore, needed to be simplifed.
     Recommendations: It is recommended that the effcacy of the programme be studied in the target population in order to assess health-related changes in relation to self-care methods, pain levels, and severity of diseases.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Kanokwan Hounsri, Prince of Songkla University

Thailand Citation Index Centre


Department of Elderly Affairs. Statistical of older people in Thailand [Internet]. 2019 [cited 2020 May

. Available from: (in Thai)

Prasartkul P. Situation of the Thai elderly 2016. Bangkok: Foundation of Thai Gerontology Research

and Development Institute; 2017.

Delloiacono N. Musculoskeletal safety for older adults in the workplace: review of current best practice

evidence. Workplace Health Saf 2015;63(2):48–53.

Takahashi A, Kitamura K, Watanabe Y, Kobayashi R, Saito T, Takachi R, et al. Epidemiological profles

of chronic low back and knee pain in middle-aged and elderly Japanese from the Murakami cohort. J

Pain Res 2018;12(11):3161-69.

Mutubuki EN, Beljon Y, Maas ET, Huygen FJPM, Ostelo RWJG, van Tulder MW, et al. The longitudinal

relationships between pain severity and disability versus health-related quality of life and costs among

chronic low back pain patients. Qual Life Res 2020;29(1):275-87.

Plouvier S, Chastang J-F, Cyr D, Bonenfant S, Descatha A, Goldberg M, et al. Occupational biomechanical exposure predicts low back pain in older age among men in the Gazel Cohort. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2015;88:501–10.

Nonnarong U. Perceived benefts perceived barriers and physical activity among Muslim woman venders

in fresh market [dissertation]. Songkhla: Prince of Songkla University; 2009.

Gignac MAM, Irvin E, Cullen K, Van Eerd D, Beaton DE, Mahood Q, et al. Men and women’s

occupational activities and the risk of developing osteoarthritis of the knee, hip, or hands: a systematic

review and recommendations for future research. Arthritis Care Res 2020;72(3):378-96.

Silverwood V, Blagojevic-Bucknall M, Jinks C, Jordan JL, Protheroe J, Jordan KP. Current evidence

on risk factors for knee osteoarthritis in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Osteoarthritis

Cartilage 2015;23(4):507-15.

Chuanklin C, Thanapop C. Health status and community readiness towards occupational health management

of aging labors, Thasala District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. The Public Health Journal of Burapha

University 2018;13(2):126-40.

Hart OR, Uden RM, McMullan JE, Ritchie MS, Williams TD, Smith BH. A study of National Health

Service management of chronic osteoarthritis and low back pain. Prim Health Care Res Dev


Fransen M, McConnell S, Harmer AR, Van der Esch M, Simic M, Bennell KL. Exercise for osteoarthritis

of the knee: a Cochrane systematic review. Br J Sports Med 2015;49(4):1554-7.

Isaramalai S, Hounsri K, Kongkamol C, Wattanapisitkul P,Tangadulrat N, Kaewmanee T, et al. Integrating

participatory ergonomic management in non-weightbearing exercise and progressive resistance exercise

on self-care and functional ability in aged farmers with knee osteoarthritis: a clustered randomized controlled trial. Clin Interv Aging 2018;13:101-8.

Steffens D, Maher CG, Pereira LS, Stevens ML, Oliveira VC, Chapple M, et al. Prevention of low

back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med 2016;176(2):199–208.

Orem DE, Taylor SG, Renpenning KM. Nursing: concepts of practice. 6th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby;2001.

International Organization for Standardization. Risk management guidelines ISO 31000:2018 [Internet].

[citied 2019 June 8]. Available from:

The Joanna Briggs Institute Levels of Evidence and Grades of Recommendation Working Party. JBI

levels of evidence [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2020 May 21]. Available from:

The Joanna Briggs Institute Levels of Evidence and Grades of Recommendation Working Party. JBI

Grades of Recommendation [Internet]. 2014 [cited 2020 May 21]. Available from: https://joannabriggs. org/sites/default/fles/2019-05/JBI-grades-ofrecommendation_2014.pdf

Hansen BB, Kirkeskov L, Christensen R, Begtrup LM, Pedersen EB, Teilya JF, et al. Retention in physically demanding jobs of individuals with low back pain: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 2015;166(16):1-9.

Robson EK, Kamper SJ, Davidson S, Silva PV, Williams A, Hodder RK, et al. Healthy Lifestyle Program (HeLP) for low back pain: protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open 2019; 9(9):1-11.

Bennell KL, Nelligan RK, Kimp AJ, Wrigley TV, Metcalf B, Kasza J, et al. Comparison of weight bearing functional exercise and non-weight bearing quadriceps strengthening exercise on pain and function for people with knee osteoarthritis and obesity: protocol for the TARGET randomised controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2019;20(1):1-19.

Ahn YH, Ham OK. Evaluation of the Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior-based multifaceted

intervention on patient activation and osteoarthritis symptoms. Jpn J Nurs Sci 2020;17(2):1-12.

Marshall L, Villeneuve J, Grenier S. Effectiveness of a multifactorial ergonomic intervention and exercise conditioning kinesiology program for subsequent work related musculoskeletal disorder prevention.

Work 2018;61(1):81-9.

Hounsri K, Isaramalai S. Development of an ergonomic self-care programme for old-aged rubber tappers

suffering from knee osteoarthritis. Thai Journal of Nursing Council 2013;28(1):85-99. (in Thai).

Will JS, Bury DC, Miller JA. Mechanical Low Back Pain. Am Fam Physician 2018;98(7):421-28.

Kankayant C, Charoennukul A, Wayo. Delaying knee osteoarthritis prior to advancing age. Ramathipbody

Nursing Journal 2020;26(1):5-17. (in Thai)



How to Cite

Hounsri ก, คมจักรพันธุ์ พ, อิสระมาลัย แ. Development of an Ergonomic Self-Care Program for Aged Vendors. TJNC [Internet]. 2020 Jul. 17 [cited 2022 Aug. 14];35(3):108-20. Available from:

Most read articles by the same author(s)