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The rapid availability of fully typed donor blood is of great advantage, especially for patients requiring repeated blood transfusions. Only limited blood group antigen typing has been carried out using the conventional tube technique. This study aimed to examine the distribution of blood group systems in Thai blood donors by the gel test. The ABO, Rh, MNSs, Duffy, Lewis, P, Kell, Lutheran and Kidd blood groups were examined in 500 Thai blood donors by the gel test. The distribution of blood group systems using the gel test was compared with other studies in the Thai population.
Results : For the ABO System, group O was the most common (42.6 %) followed by group B (30.8 %), group A (20.2 %) and group AB (6.4 %). The most common Rh gene complex was CCDee (53.8 %) which was similar to other studies. The MMss and MNss gene complexes were the most common in the MNSs System. Fya was very common as in other Asians. In the Lewis System, the incidence of Le (a-b-) was 21.0 %, which is consistent with other findings in the Thai population. One hundred and forty-five (29 %) were positive for anti-P1. For the Kell System, 1 out of 500 (0.2 %) had the Kk type, 99.8 % had the kk types and only Kpb positive types were observed in this study, as well as Lu (a-b+) in the Lutheran System. The Jk (a-b-) was not found since it is a rare phenotype among Thai people.
Discussion : This study shows the blood group distribution in 500 Thai volunteers using the gel test. Because of its simplicity and efficacy, this test is practical in population studies. Additionally, it is useful for mass screening and can be applied in emergency situations.
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