Main Article Content
The online learning helps to minimise disruptions on teaching and compromising students' learning outcomes; however there is limited evidence on effective online assessment methods used at Higher Education Institutions during pandemics. This paper aimed to summarise online assessment methods and recommend reliable as well as practical approaches used at HEIs during COVID-19 pandemic. We performed a scoping literature review to identify original papers, review and reports that examine the online assessment methods used in higher education before and during COVID-19 pandemic. We identified common themes in data analysis. The psychometric theory is useful when designing valid and reliable online assessment methods for online learning, particularly in medical education. The typical online assessment methods used at HEIs include online quizzes, continuous feedback, multiple-choice questions and automated assessment for essays. The online tools for formative assessment in higher education include feedback, self-test quiz and discussion forums. The critical strategies recommended managing online examination involve setting up online questions using freely available software and utilising free video conferencing tool as CCTV on mobile phones for invigilation purposes. Educators must consider readiness among students and teachers, cheating practices and student diversity when employing online assessment at HEIs. They can benefit from training for online learning and the assessment methods to prepare them better when facing global uncertainties such as COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, educators must evaluate the methods and their impact on students' learning outcomes.
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