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Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disease that is difficult to control. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a collaborative style of communication that was designed to strengthen a person’s motivation and commitment to change and improve. We hypothesized that applying MI to diabetes care would lead to improved glycemic control and improved diabetes self-care behavior.
Methods: Subjects were T1DM patients aged 10-18 years with HbA1C ≥8% that were recruited from the Outpatient Diabetes Clinic during October 2016 - March 2017. Subjects were randomized into the diabetes self-management education (DSME) or DSME plus MI groups. HbA1C levels, diabetes knowledge test, and diabetes self-care behavioral questionnaire were performed.
Results: Thirty-five patients (17 DSME, 18 DSME + MI) completed the study. Baseline HbA1C was not significantly different between groups. At the end of the study, HbA1C levels were not significantly different within or between groups. From pre-intervention to post-intervention, diabetes knowledge scores were significantly increased, and self-care behavioral scores were significantly increased for dietary control and medical taking. Transition to the stages of change action stage was increased from 0 to 12 persons.
Conclusions: The effectiveness of MI on glycemic control was not found to be statistically significant at 6 months. However, continuation of DSME in T1DM patients is necessary for improving diabetes knowledge and care. Further study in a larger sample size with longer duration of MI and follow-up is needed to conclusively establish the value of MI on glycemic control in pediatric T1DM.
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