Clinical Outcomes of Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors: A Single Institute’s Experience

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Kamala Laohverapanich
Jassada Buaboonnam
Nassawee Vathana
Kleebsabai Sanpakit
Chayamon Takpradit
Nattee Narkbunnum
Bunchoo Pongtanakul
Panjarat Sowithayasakul
Kamon Phuakpet


Objective: To determine the clinical features and treatment outcomes of pediatric extracranial germ cell tumor (EGCT) in Thailand.
Materials and methods: A retrospective chart review of children under 15 years old with newly diagnosed EGCT who were treated at Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital from January, 2004 to December, 2013 was conducted.
Results: Forty-four patients were included in the study. The median age at diagnosis was 1.74 years (1 day-14.7 years) with the median follow up time of 6.9 years (14 days-15.2 years). Twenty-eight patients (64%) had extragonadal tumor. The most common primary tumor location was the sacrococcygeal area. Majority of the patients (61%) had malignant EGCT; yolk sac tumor was the most common diagnosis. Six patients (14%) had stage IV disease. Forty patients (91%) underwent surgery; 27 patients (61%) received chemotherapy. Thirty-eight patients (86%) achieved remission; 3 patients (7%) subsequently relapsed at a median time of 1 year. Eight patients (18%) died, mostly from tumor progression. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rate were 78.3% and 81.1%, respectively. Patients achieving total tumor removal had significantly better 5-year EFS and OS. Cox regression analysis revealed that the adequacy of surgery was the only prognostic factor for survival.
Conclusion: The survival rate of pediatric EGCT in our study was relatively favorable, but still inferior to that of developed countries. Novel therapy may be warranted for those patients who are unresponsive to the current treatment.


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Laohverapanich, K. ., Buaboonnam, J. ., Vathana, N. ., Sanpakit, K. ., Takpradit, C. ., Narkbunnum, N. ., Pongtanakul, B. ., Sowithayasakul, P. ., & Phuakpet, K. . (2021). Clinical Outcomes of Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors: A Single Institute’s Experience. Siriraj Medical Journal, 73(10), 680–686.
Original Article


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