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Congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) is caused by thyroid hormone deficiency in newborn which leads to mental and growth retardation. Clinical symptoms do not manifest at birth. Neonatal screening for CHT is therefore necessary and made possible of the affected neonates to get early diagnosis and treatment in time. CHT newborn screening was determined by measuring thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) from dried blood spot sample (DBS). The heel prick samples (whole blood) were collected on filter papers from newborns at age more than 48 hours after birth and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique has been used as screening test for CHT. From 2016 to 2018, a total of 1,610,479 Thai newborns had been screened for CHT and 830 newborns were found to be CHT, while the incidence of CHT was about 5.15 per 10,000 screened newborn. As compared with the CHT screening in the 4 regions of Thailand: Central, North, Northeast and South, the samples had coverage of about 97.65%, 99.87%, 97.52% and 80.92%, respectively. It was found that the incidences of CHT in the 4 regions were 5.01, 6.22, 5.60 and 3.52 per 10,000 screened newborns, respectively. As can be seen, the highest incidence of CHT was found in the northern region of Thailand whereas the lowest was found in the southern region. Furthermore, 51.49% of the screened newborns were boys and 4.92% was preterm infants. From confirmation of the follow-up samples, it was found that the incidence rate of the confirmed screening in girls was greater than boys and preterm infant was greater than in term of infant. The CHT incidence rate has increased over the year in all regions of Thailand.
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